Snow forms in so many guises that the Inuit have 20 names for it; karakartanaq is "crusty snow that breaks under foot," upsik is "wind-beaten snow," and qali is "snow on the boughs of trees.Woningen te koop
One characteristic that makes wood uniquely unique, is that even a single piece of wood is variable onto itself. If you take a cubic foot of most things-water, plastic, iron, Jello, Styrofoam or granite-place it in a vise and squeeze, it will react the same way no matter which sides of the cube are between the jaws. These objects are isotropic they have identical properties in all directions and homogenous they're uniform in composition.
But not wood; wood is anisotropic and heterogeneous. Depending on which way you placed it in the vise-or drill it, dry it, stretch it, glue it, screw it, plane it, cut it, or almost "anything" it-it will react differently. It even looks different from surface to surface. A cube of oak may be a bulls-eye of concentric circles on one surface, a bevy of lines on another, and a blank slate on yet the third.
If it's not challenging enough to sort out the differences within a single piece of wood, then head to your local lumber dealer or hardwoods store.
Excerpt: 'A Splintered History Of Wood'
There you can be amused by an entire freak show of woods; a display that includes the arboreal counterparts to the fat man, Leopard Girl and Tom Thumb. Weight and density. There are over species of trees and shrubs in the world with wood so heavy that they'll sink. Specific gravity is a ratio used to compare the weight of oven-dried wood to that of an equal volume of water. The heaviest of the heavyweights are certain tropical "ironwoods" a generic, not scientific name with a specific gravity of 1.
The heaviest and densest of these ironwoods are often referred to as "quebracho," which fittingly translates into "axe-breaker. The wood of the canyon live oak was used for both splitting wedges and the mauls that whacked them by early pioneers.
At Belleau Wood, Marines saved Paris, proved mettle during WWI
Some of the hardest hardwoods register 2. Hardness is closely related to density, which is closely related to weight. If you've got heavy wood, you've got hard wood. The lightest of the lightweights is the Cuban wood Aeschynomene hispida with a specific gravity of. If you wanted to balance a scale with a cubic foot of ironwood on one side, you'd need to place 30 times as much of the Cuban wood on the opposite platform.
Balsa is the lightest commercially used timber; its very meaning in Spanish is "raft. The tree grows fast, dies young and lives wet. Moisture content is typically in the percent range and there are reported instances of it approaching percent.
Trees are ready for harvesting by the age of seven and begin rotting in their early teens unless harvested and dried.
The name Roy G. Biv should ring a bell — at least if you were paying attention to the mnemonic taught in grade school to help memorize the colors of the visible spectrum. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. One can come close to creating this rainbow of colors with woods of the natural world.
Red you could glean from the redwood or incense cedar. Orange you could pluck from the Osage orange or yew. Yellow could be whittled from the yellow poplar or yellow buckeye.
Green could be shaved from the magnolia. Blue is a rarity in a natural state, though you could harvest plenty of it from lodgepole pines, which have been infected by the mountain pine beetle. The sapwood, colored by a blue-staining fungus, is even marketed by one company as Denim Wood.By Septemberthe Allied offensive in Western Europe had swept from the Normandy beaches all the way to the West Wall, or Siegfried Line, the formidable defensive position along the German border consisting of concrete bunkers fronted by antitank obstacles.
Rather than the useless real estate of the forest, the flood-controlling dams were genuine strategic assets, but the American planners initially ignored their value and drew up no plans to secure them. The forest, largely planted and nurtured by the Third Reich, presented an almost solid growth of trees that reduced visibility to a few yards. It contained few roads, steep hills and a handful of clearings for sev-eral villages.
Although German strategists believed no sensible adversary would seek to penetrate the forest, they had nevertheless honeycombed it with thickly shielded emplacements capable of providing interlocking fire to one another. On September 14,the 9th Infantry Division became the first to test the defenses. A Regular Army outfit commanded by Maj. Louis A. Craig, the 9th had fought in North Africa and then across France. Like many Allied divisions, its ranks had been severely depleted during prolonged combat.
In spite of its weakness, the 47th jumped off from near Aachen on the 14th and plunged ahead as much as six miles against little opposition. We saw no Germans, no buildings. On the second day, we were so close to Zweifall [a village] that their air raid sirens sounded as though they were in the next row of trees.
On the third day, Jordan and his companions, tacking northeast, were perched on a hillside trail. The astonished lieutenant then saw a German officer strolling along near his position studying a map. We grabbed guns and ran or fell down the steep slope. It was a German colonel, who was not only surprised but pissed off something terrible. We de-souvenired him and sent him back. The platoon continued over a road and climbed another ridge.
Myers knelt next to a tree and fired.France plunged into a dark age, occupied by the Nazis with the terrible implications bombing raids, executions, deportation, murders and famine. Slowly the resistance took shape and began to react, but against such a foe little changed.
The population waited for liberation, living day by day under a control of an iron fist imposed by the collaboration of the Vichy government, the SS and Gestapo. Freedom came with the arrival of the Allied Forces and the D-Day landings in Normandy, the French reacted to the calls of their self-exiled leader Charles de Gaulle.
However effort to push the Germans back to the river Rhine was still long and heavy on victims. Soissons is only where it was garrisoned then disbanded in The date is based on the uniform and weapons thank you Jean Fallay.
Putting an end to the Phoney War, the Battle of France saw in the following months the retreat of the British troops and the fall of France. Around 40, soldiers, most of them French were killed or captured.
Malo, Brest, St. Throughout German occupied Europe, young men are called to participate in war effort. The German powers demand France to provide thousand volunteers before the end of July. In June, Pierre Laval leader of the French governement succeds in negociating a deal, where 3 volenterres for the STO for one war prisoner. This system fails with only 17 thousand volenteers. On the 22nd of August the German powers imposes forced recruitment of both men and women in an attempt to reach the thousand.
He dies after months of torture by the Nazis on a train whilst being transported to Germany in So the Germans but an end to the STO, however an agreemenet is found with the French governement, where the workers are protected but the French companies become integrated within the German econmy.
Unoffical figures mention thosand people being taken away for the forced labour with 50 thousand escaping, many of whom join the resitance. For those who did not want to fight or find a place" in the resitance, they remained hidden at home or in isolated farms with the help of accomplices.
Certain people where simply forgotten as the German burecracy was submerged in paper work.War is a strange time, and there is perhaps no stranger one in history than World War II. From rumors that the Nazis were involved in occult research—rumors that have been successfully mined in films like Indiana Jones and comic books like Hellboy —to ominous sightings, mysterious battles, and ghostly planes, World War II scarred the world, and left behind countless mysteries, many of which have never been solved.
According to some accounts, they loaded a train with Nazi treasure, including gold and other valuables looted from Jewish victims of the Holocaust, and sent it on a trip through the Owl Mountains, where it disappeared.
Some believe that the train vanished into tunnels created in the mountains as part of Der Riesea secret facility built by the Nazis during the war. Meiers, these objects were generally thought to be secret weapons employed by the Axis forces, though the Robertson Panel later determined that they were likely natural phenomena such as St. While technically occurring shortly after the end of the war, the disappearance of Flight 19 is notable in part because of its role in helping to establish the legend of the Bermuda Triangle.
While on a training flight over that infamous patch of ocean, five Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo bombers lost contact with the tower. A Martin PBM Mariner flying boat was launched to search for the planes, which were assumed to have crashed, but the Mariner disappeared as well. No wreckage or bodies were ever recovered, either from Flight 19 or the Mariner, and Navy investigators were unable to determine a cause for the total disappearance of, in all, some 27 men and six planes.
When U. They said that the plane was riddled with bullet holes, and that the pilot could be seen inside, bloody and slumped over in the cockpit, though he is said to have waved briefly at the other planes just before the P crash-landed.
When search teams explored the wreckage, however, they found no body, and no indication of a pilot, simply a diary that claimed that the plane had flown from Mindanao, an island some 1, miles away. The attack on Pearl Harbor shocked America so much that it probably comes as no surprise that when an unidentified object was spotted in the sky over Los Angeles only a few months later, the response was swift. Witnesses described the object in question as round and glowing orange.
If anything was hit, no wreckage was found. Inthe United States Coast Artillery Association claimed that a weather balloon had started the shooting, while in the U. Want more World War II? Sign up for The Archive's newsletter and get historical stories delivered straight to your inbox.
Made famous by Charlie Chaplin in his film The Great DictatorHitler really did have an enormous globe with a wooden base in his office. Some claim that a globe, recently auctioned by its owner, was Hitler's, but historian Wolfram Pobanz disputes thatsaying the globe in question actually belonged to Joachim von Ribbentrop.
Most of these weapons remained prototypes or even simply theoretical, but the idea of them entered the public consciousness, and has proven fertile ground for science fiction writers over the years. When activated, the terrifying weapon was supposed to create a zone of effect around itself that would cause blood to coagulate inside the body and plants to decompose.
Many of the scientists who worked on Die Glocke were said to have died while testing it, though the weapon was never used and, depending on whom you believe, may never have actually existed at all. During the fighting that followed, the flag was soaked in the blood of Nazi Brown Shirts, and became a potent symbol of the movement.
Some believe that the bloodstained flag was destroyed during the Allied bombing of Munich, while others assert that the flag still exists. Many have claimed ownership of it over the years, but no claims have been proven. Induring excavations at perhaps the most infamous of the Nazi concentration camps, a list was found containing the names of 17 British soldiers. What is unclear is what the list was a list of. Were these former prisoners of war, or defectors who joined the SS?
Through her famous diary, Anne Frank has become one of the most well known voices of the atrocities of the Holocaust. The diary was written while Frank was hiding in Amsterdam, but she ultimately died in the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp.Madison county 911 board
While her diary shed light upon much of her life, the reason for her death remains a mystery. Someone must have reported her, but who ultimately made the anonymous phone call that led to the capture and execution of Anne Frank and her family?The battle was fought between the U. In Marchwith nearly 50 additional divisions freed by the Russian surrender on the Eastern Frontthe German Army launched a series of attacks on the Western Front, hoping to defeat the Allies before U.
The U. Marines—was brought up along the Paris-Metz highway. The 9th Infantry Regiment was placed between the highway and the Marne, while the 6th Marine Regiment was deployed to their left. The 5th Marine and 23rd Infantry regiments were placed in reserve. On the evening of 1 June, German forces punched a hole in the French lines to the left of the Marines' position.
In response, the U. Malonethe 1st Battalion, 5th Marines under lieutenant colonel Julius S. By the night of 2 June, the U. The German line opposite ran from Vaux to Bouresches to Belleau. German commanders ordered an advance on Marigny and Lucy through Belleau Wood as part of a major offensive, in which other German troops would cross the Marne River.
The commander of the Marine Brigade, Army General James Harbordcountermanding a French order to dig trenches further to the rear, ordered the Marines to "hold where they stand".
With bayonetsthe Marines dug shallow fighting positions from which they could shoot from the prone position. In the afternoon of 3 June, German infantry attacked the Marine positions through the grain fields with bayonets fixed.
Williams of the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines uttered the now-famous retort "Retreat? Hell, we just got here". Over the next two days, the Marines repelled the continuous German assaults. Bundy's 3rd Brigade held the southern sector of the line, while the Marine brigade held the north of the line from Triangle Farm. At on 6 June, the Allies launched an attack on the German forces, who were preparing their own strike. The French th Division attacked to the left of the American line, while the Marines attacked Hill to prevent flanking fire against the French.
As part of the second phase, the 2nd Division were to capture the ridge overlooking Torcy and Belleau Wood, as well as occupying Belleau Wood. However, the Marines failed to scout the woods.
As a consequence, they missed a regiment of German infantry dug in, with a network of machine gun nests and artillery. At dawn, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines—commanded by Major Julius Turrill—was to attack Hillbut only two companies were in position. The Marines advanced in waves with bayonets fixed across an open wheat field that was swept with German machine gun and artillery fire, and many Marines were cut down.
Captain Hamilton and the 49th Company fought from wood to wood, fighting the entrenched Germans and overrunning their objective by 6 yards 5. At this point, Hamilton had lost all five junior officers, while the 67th had only one commissioned officer alive.
Hamilton reorganized the two companies, establishing strong points and a defensive line. Janson —who was serving under the name Charles Hoffman—repelled an advance of 12 German soldiers, killing two with his bayonet before the others fled; for this action he became the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor in World War I.
Also cited for advancing through enemy fire during the counter-attack was Marine Gunner Henry Hulbert who was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. The rest of the battalion now arrived and went into action.
Turrill's flanks lay unprotected, and the Marines were rapidly exhausting their ammunition. By the afternoon, however, the Marines had captured Hillat a cost of nine officers and most of the men of the battalion. Eddyand two men stole through German lines to gather information about German forces.Panzerschreck
They gathered valuable information showing the Germans were consolidating machine gun positions and bringing in artillery. While this activity indicated an attack was not immediately likely, their increasing strength was creating a base of attack that raised concern about breaking through to Paris.
Sibley, on their right—advanced from the west into Belleau Wood as part of the second phase of the Allied offensive. Again, the Marines had to advance through a waist-high wheat field into deadly machine gun fire.First Lieutenant Richard A.
Gray joined the unit late in the war. B y January 14,I had been in England with the U. Eighth Air Force for more than seven months, piloting a B heavy bomber. I had completed 35 bombing missions over France and Germany—at that time, a tour of duty—and was set to return to the States for a day furlough. In the meantime, I learned that if I took a second tour without returning to the States, the tour requirement would be cut in half and I could then expect a permanent stateside assignment.
The decision became easier when I was offered the chance to join a P fighter squadron. I carefully prepared a follow-up letter to Betts and my parents explaining that I had elected to stay in Europe, and arrived at my new station at Steeple Morden Airfield near Cambridge.
First Lieutenant R. Gray reporting for duty. During the next several weeks, I flew nearly every day, practicing landing, formation, and getting some gunnery practice. Several bomber escort missions over Germany followed. Then came April 4, Like the others, this mission was in escort of heavy bombers.
We climbed out over the Channel and proceeded toward Germany. We circled at low altitude. As we completed the first pass, 20mm guns mounted in flak towers surrounding the field began firing on us.
Since my plane was on the inside of the circle, I became the principal target. My immediate reaction was to make a diving pass across the field to spray some.
As I made my pass, about 20 feet above the runway, I saw several Heinkel bombers off to the side and, in my anxiety to score victories, forgot the tower.
That was a big mistake. All of a sudden everything went black: oil was pouring from my engine onto the windshield. Once I had gained a little altitude, I saw that about three feet of my left wing had been shot away. I decided to stay at low altitude, search for a clear spot to crash-land, and take the consequences.
Reacting instinctively, I redirected toward a clearing and tipped up vertically to slip between bordering trees. Because most of our training was done with a left-hand landing pattern, I instinctively dropped the left wing. My first memory is of coming awake curled in the fetal position under some shrubbery, my pistol clutched in my arms.
My head and right leg hurt like hell, my shirt was soaked with blood, and my vision was blurred and faint. I started walking through the woods, but my strength was ebbing rapidly; after only about 1, yards, I lay down again.They were on their bellies in 3 ft grass when they saw 20 or 30 German soldiers running across the clearing clearly in a state of panic, then they just froze in mid step.
After a few seconds came a loud noise like metal scraping on concrete and the frozen soldiers started to become blurry to the point at which they vanished without a trace. Surprisingly when they got their, there were other men sharing the same accommodation who reported similar occurrences in the exact same area. They were all taken to the woods and had to describe where and how the events took place.
My grandad had said that the entire area was guarded heavily and that part of the ground was heavily excavated.
The Creepiest Ghost Stories And Legends From WWII
The strangest thing of all the other he said, was that there were hundreds of dogs in the area, just milling around for no apparent reason. They returned to the UK with a gag order ordering them never to speak about any of this. He went back to the same spot in france before he died in and said that the area had been covered with unmarked warehouses and was guarded by an unusually professional security company.
He reckoned they were military. When we were both around 10, my cousin was having family problems, and my mom invited her to stay with us while it got sorted out. It was pretty fun, kind of like having a temporary sister. We ended up talking about it a few years ago, reminiscing about the weird things we would do together and some of the memories that stood out the most, among them the night we stayed up laughing at my golden retriever, who kept trying to steal my pillow off the bottom bunk when we were trying to get to sleep.
Thinking maybe she was just going along with the story, I asked her what color the bedframe was.Door to door soap sales strategy
She was right. None of them had red bunk beds. I still have no idea what happened. We were on a somewhat busy road. There were street lights and business lights everywhere so visabilty was still great. This road was 3 lanes in each direction and there was a concrete median dividing the traffic. I was in the left lane next to the median, and a traffic light was coming up.
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